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Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov (18441927)  Portrait of the Narrator of the Byliny and Folk Tales Nikita Bogdanov, 1876  Oil on canvas  43.5x69.5 m  The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia
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Title: Nikita Bogdanov
Description:
Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov (18441927)
Portrait of the Narrator of the Byliny and Folk Tales Nikita Bogdanov, 1876
Oil on canvas
43.5x69.5 m
The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia

Bylina (pl. byliny ). Scholars use the word b. for the Rus. oral epic, but singers employ starina or starinka, terms denoting a past or old event. Most likely the b. originated in Kievan Russia from the 10th through the 12th c. and reflects struggles with nomadic groups in the steppe. After the Tartar conquest around 1240, adversaries in the byliny were changed to Tartars. The earliest collection is attributed to Kirsha Danilov, who probably took down the songs in Western Siberia in the mid 18th c. Most subsequent recordings were made from peasant singers in northern regions around Lake Onega and the White Sea; the trad, died out in the 1950s. Byliny can be divided into Novgorod cycles and Kiev or Vladimir cycles. Prince Vladimir, similar to King Arthur, rules in Kiev, and the epic heroes ( bogatyr ) gather around him. The b. comprises several subgenres: heroic epics, novelistic epics or romances, magic tales, ballads, historical songs, religious verses, and satirical songs of the minstrels ( skomorok ). Ordinarily byliny contain 300 to 500 lines, are performed by one male or female singer, are unaccompanied (although texts refer to the gusli ), are without rhyme or stanza form, and are each devoted to one episode; long composite songs combining several episodes did not develop. Byliny display typical epic subjects, are concerned with the distant past, possess special linguistic and poetic devices, and are impersonal in tone. Members of the Rus. historical school advanced a theory about the aristocratic origin of the b. in the princes retinues, but Soviet folklorists have rejected this interpretation.A. Skaftymov, Poetika i genezis bylin (1924); N. Chadwick, Rus. Heroic Poetry (1932); A. As-taxova, Russkij bylinnyj èpos na Severe (1948), Byliny: Itogi i problemy izucenija (1966); M. Pliseckij, Istorizm russkix bylin (1962); Y. Sokolov, Rus. Folklore (1970); A. E. Alexander, B. and Fairy Tale (1973); J. O. Bailey, The Metrical Typology of Rus. Narrative Folk Meters, Am. Contrìbs. to the 8th Internat. Congress of Slavists, v. 1 (1978); M. L. Gasparov, Russkij bylinnyj stix. Isskdovanija poteorii stixa, ed. V. M. Zirmunskij et al. (1978); F J. Oinas, Rus. Byliny, Heroic Epic and Saga (1978); B. P Scherr, Tonic Versification, in Terras; Byliny, ed. B. Putilov (1986).
Guardians of Russian antiquity, carrying the historical memory of the people were Russian storyteller (Action bylinas), and storyteller. They convey to students the peculiarity of folk poetry, were the soul, the source of light, cheerful mood listening to their rights. Each of them had his utive style. Each of them has its individual characteristics. Among the narrators are found richly gifted poetic nature with a creative fine. Some folk storyteller were inclined to fantastic images, the other - to the everyday images, a third - to joke and balagurstvu. Here are brief details of the individual artists folklore.
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Goback 32 / 59 Forward
Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov (18441927)  The Birchwood Alley in Abramtzevo, 1880  Oil on canvas  The  State Art Museum Abramtzevo, Moscow region, RussiaVasily Dmitrievich Polenov (18441927)  Portrait of the Narrator of the Byliny and Folk Tales Nikita Bogdanov, 1876  Oil on canvas  43.5x69.5 m  The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, RussiaVasily Dmitrievich Polenov (18441927)  Erechteion, 1882  Oil on canvas  27.4x40 cm  The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia
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