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John Everett Millais (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896)  Christ in the House of His Parents  Oil on canvas, 1849-1850  139.7 x 86.4 cm (4' 7
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Title: Christ
John Everett Millais (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896)
Christ in the House of His Parents
Oil on canvas, 1849-1850
139.7 x 86.4 cm (4' 7" x 34.02")
Tate Gallery, London, United Kingdom

Christ in the House of His Parents (1849-50) is a painting by John Everett Millais depicting the Holy Family in Saint Joseph's carpentry workshop. The painting was extremely controversial when first exhibited, prompting many negative reviews, most notably one written by Charles Dickens. It catapulted the previously obscure Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood to notoriety and was a major contributor to the debate about Realism in the arts.


The painting depicts the young Jesus assisting Joseph in his workshop. Joseph is making a door, which is laid on his carpentry work-table. Jesus has cut his hand on an exposed nail, leading to a sign of the stigmata, prefiguring the crucifixion. As Saint Anne removes the nail with a pair of pincers, his concerned mother Mary offers her cheek for a kiss while Joseph examines his wounded hand. The young John the Baptist brings in water to wash the wound, prefiguring his later baptism of Christ. An assistant of Joseph's, representing potential future Apostles watches these events. In the background various objects are used to further point up the theological significance of the subject. A ladder, referring to Jacob's ladder is visible leaning against the back wall; a dove standing for the Holy spirit rests on it. Other carpentry implements refer to the Holy Trinity. Millais probably used Albrecht Dürer's print Melancholia I as a source for this imagery, along with quattrocento works. The sheep in the fold in the background represent the future Christian flock.

It has been suggested that Millais was influenced by John Rogers Herbert's painting "Our Saviour Subject to His Parents at Nazareth". He may also have drawn on a painting depicting Jesus helping Joseph in his workshop, which at the time was attributed to Annibale Carracci.

Critical response

The painting was immensely controversial when first exhibited because of its realistic depiction of a carpentry workshop, especially the dirt and detritus on the floor. This was in dramatic contrast to the familiar portrayal of Jesus, his family and his apostles, in costumes reminiscent of Roman togas. Charles Dickens accused Millais of portraying Mary as an alcoholic who looks“ ...so hideous in her ugliness that ... she would stand out the rest of the company as a Monster, in the vilest cabaret in France, or the lowest gin-shop in England. ”

Critics also objected to the portrayal of Jesus, one complaining that it was "painful" to see "the youthful Saviour" depicted as "a red-headed Jew boy". Dickens described him as a "wry-necked boy in a nightgown who seems to have received a poke playing in an adjacent gutter." Other critics suggested that the characters displayed signs of rickets and other disease associated with slum conditions. Because of the controversy Queen Victoria asked for the painting to be taken to Buckingham Palace so that she could view it in private.

At the Royal Academy the painting was exhibited with a companion piece by Millais's colleague William Holman Hunt, which also portrayed a scene early Christian history in which a family help a wounded individual. This was entitled A Converted British Family sheltering a Christian Missionary the persecution of the Druids.


The effect of the critical comments was to make the Pre-Raphaelite movement famous and to create a debate about the relationship between modernity, realism and medievalism in the arts. The critic John Ruskin supported Millais in letter to the press and in his lecture "Pre-Raphaelitsm" despite his personal dislike of the painting. Its use of Symbolic Realism led to a wider movement in which typology was combined with detailed observation.
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John Everett Millais (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896)  Dew-Drenched Furze  Oil on panel, 1890  Private collectionJohn Everett Millais (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896)  Christ in the House of His Parents  Oil on canvas, 1849-1850  139.7 x 86.4 cm (4' 7John Everett Millais (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896)  Miss Eveleen Tennant  Oil on canvas, 1874  1415 x 1137 mm  Private collection
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