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Alexander Dmitrievich Litovchenko ( 1835 - 1890)  Ivan the Terrible Showing His Treasures to Jerome Horsey  Oil on canvas, 1875  153x236 cm (60.2 x 92.9 inches)  Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia
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Title: Ivan the Terrible
Description:
Alexander Dmitrievich Litovchenko ( 1835 - 1890)
Ivan the Terrible Showing His Treasures to Jerome Horsey
Oil on canvas, 1875
153x236 cm (60.2 x 92.9 inches)
Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia

Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: ́ , ́, Ivan Chetvyorty, Vasilyevich), known in English as Ivan the Terrible (Russian: ́ ́, Ivan Grozny) (August 25, 1530, Moscow 28 March [O.S. 18 March] 1584, Moscow) was Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533. The epithet "Grozny" is associated with might, power and strictness, rather than poor performance, horror or cruelty. Some authors more accurately translate it into modern English as Ivan the Awesome. Ivan oversaw numerous s in the transition from a mere local medieval nation state to a small empire and emerging regional power, becoming the first Tsar of a new more powerful nation, acknowledged as "Tsar of All Russia" from 1547.

Ivan is described in contrary terms: intelligent, devout, and impulsive by some; given to rages and prone to episodic outbreaks of mental illness by others. One notable outburst resulted in the death of his groomed and chosen heir Ivan Ivanovich (although this version is supported mainly by foreign authors of that time and those Russian historians who quote them; according to others Ivan Ivanovich could die of some illness), and resulted in the passing of the Tsardom to the younger son: the arguably mentally challenged Feodor I of Russia. His long reign saw the conquest of the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia, transforming Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state spanning almost 1 billion acres, growing during his term at a rate of approximately 50 square miles a day.

The Tsardom of Rus' (Russian: ) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IV's assumption of the title of Tsar (Emperor) in 1547 and Peter the Great's foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. The name originated from the fact that it contained all of the Rus lands that were at the time free of foreign states' domination. This new name was recognized by England in 1554 and by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilan II in 1576. To this day some Western sources refer to this state as Muscovite Russia or Muscovy, the term originally applied in Western and Central Europe to its medieval predecessor, the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Diverse researchers consider the propagation of this term in Western Europe as a result of political interests and active diplomacy of Poland, the strongest international power in Northern-eastern Europe at the dawning of the Early Modern era.


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Alexander Dmitrievich Litovchenko ( 1835 - 1890)  Tsar Alexis and Archbishop Nikon Venerating the Relics of Patriarch Philip  Oil on canvas, 1886  225 x 183.8   State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, RussiaAlexander Dmitrievich Litovchenko ( 1835 - 1890)  Ivan the Terrible Showing His Treasures to Jerome Horsey  Oil on canvas, 1875  153x236 cm (60.2 x 92.9 inches)  Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, RussiaAlexander Dmitrievich Litovchenko ( 1835 - 1890)  Italian Envoy Kalvuchchi draws Falcon favorite of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich  Oil on canvas, 1889  Kharkiv Art Museum, Kharkov, Ukraine
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