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Orest Adamovich Kiprenskii (1778-1836)  Portrait of Count Fyodor Vasilievich Rostopchin  Oil on canvas, 1809  75,8 x 61,3 cm  The Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, Russia
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Title: Fyodor Rostopchin
Orest Adamovich Kiprenskii (1778-1836)
Portrait of Count Fyodor Vasilievich Rostopchin
Oil on canvas, 1809
75,8 x 61,3 cm
The Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, Russia

Count Fyodor Vasilievich Rostopchin (Russian: Ô¸äîð Âàñèëüåâè÷ Ðîñòîï÷èí) (3.12(23).1763 - 1.18(30).1826) was a controversial Russian statesman.  Russian statesman, writer and publicist. He appears as a character in Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace, in which he is presented very unfavorably.

Fyodor Rostopchin had great influence over the tsar Paul I, who made him in 1796 adjutant general, grand-marshal of the court, then Foreign Minister. In 1799, he received the title of count. He was disgraced in 1801 for his opposition to the French alliance
 He received home education. Ten or twelve years old enrolled in the service of Transfiguration Regiment. In 1782 he received the rank of warrant. Traveled to Germany, England, Holland (1786-1788), listened to lectures at Leipzig University. In 1788 was when Alexander Suvorov, participated in the assault Ochakov. In 1792 left the military service and was enrolled at Chamberlain. Embittered at Rostopchina Panin said later that he played at the court of Catherine the role of buffoon. In fact, 1798-1801 was led by the College of Foreign Affairs, held various positions, at times fixed by them as a result of palace intrigues and control groups. 

Sent in 1801 to resign, has, in particular, literature. Attracted the attention of his pamphlet antigallomansky «Thoughts aloud on the porch of the Red» (1807). 1812-1814 In-Chief (Governor-General) of Moscow, General of Infantry. Produced leaflets antifrantsuzskie ( «afishki»), formed the Provincial militia. Rostopchinu put the credit values of the evacuation of Moscow and the guilt - the fact that the city left many wounded. It is also considered the initiator of the fire of Moscow. 

Literary activities Rostopchina includes the debut of young «Journey to Prussia», a work which Tikhonravov raised even higher karamzinskih «Letters Russian tourists». Travel notes Rostopchina is more vitality, freedom the fetters of pedanticheskoy shop literary tradition. According to Tihonravova original school of literary taste Rostopchina were the Hermitage of Catherine II, who were in the course of the little literary improvisation Burima, charade. Rostopchin did not consider themselves professional writers, and composed of matter. Its a great story «Oh, the French!» Was published in domestic scrap in 1842. The aim of the author - to portray the Russian with an ideal family, based on starozavetnyh national basis as opposed to fashion the French loose morals. Under the name footling Rostopchin osmeyal well-known publisher of «other children», and the author of many plays Ilyina. In the interval between the favorite at court and the appointment of Paul I in 1812 at the Moscow office of the Governor-General, while living in her estate Voronovo and in Moscow, wrote a great number of satirical comedies. By reading in a circle of close friends, the author has written himself destroyed. 

As a publicist styazhal loud thanks to the success of his famous pamphlet «Thoughts aloud on the porch of the Red». This is a harsh criticism against the tendency of Russians to frantsuzomanii and the glorification of the Russian traditional prowess. The form - this is a monologue old nobleman Bogatyreva A. Force, with its characteristic style Rostopchina daedal words such as: «the French in any head wind mill, hospital and lunatic asylum»; «revolution - a fire, the French - brand, as Bonaparte - poker . Here are some of the, and threw a pipe ».

Íå was restored to favor in 1810, and was shortly afterwards appointed military governor of Moscow. He was therefore charged with its defence against Napoleon, and took every means to rouse the population of the town and district against the invader. He has been generally charged with instigating the burning of Moscow the day after the French had made their entry; it is certain that the prisons were opened by his order, and that he took no means to stop the outbreak. He defended himself against the charge of arson in a pamphlet printed in Paris in 1823, but he subsequently made grave admissions. Shortly after the Congress of Vienna, to which he had accompanied tsar Alexander I, he was disgraced. He only returned to Russia in 1825 and died in Moscow in February of the next year.

His daughter, the Comtesse de Ségur, was a noted French novelist.

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Orest Adamovich Kiprenskii (1778-1836)  Portrait of Konstantin Nikolayevich Batyushkov, 1815  Italian pencil, paper  The State Literature Museum, Moscow, RussiaOrest Adamovich Kiprenskii (1778-1836)  Portrait of Count Fyodor Vasilievich Rostopchin  Oil on canvas, 1809  75,8 x 61,3 cm  The Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, RussiaOrest Adamovich Kiprenskii (1778-1836)  Portrait unknown (with neckerchief neck), 1829  Italian pencil on paper  The State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia
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