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Vasily Ivanovich Surikov (1848 - 1916)  Boyarina Morozova  Oil on canvas, 1887   304 x 587.5 cm  The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia
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Title: Boyarina Morozova
Description:
Vasily Ivanovich Surikov (1848 - 1916)
Boyarina Morozova
Oil on canvas, 1887
304 x 587.5 cm
The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia

Feodosia Prokofiyevna Morozova ( in Russian) (1632-1675) was one of the most well-known partisans of the Old Believer movement.

She was born on May 21, 1632 into a family of the okolnichi Prokopy Feodorovich Sokovnin. At the age of 17, she was married to the boyar Gleb Morozov, brother to the tsar's tutor Boris Morozov. After her husband's early death in 1662, she retained a prominent position at the Russian court.

During the Raskol Feodosiya, being a penitent of Archpriest Avvakum, joined the Old Believers' movement and secretly took monastic vows with the name Theodora. She played an important role in convincing her sister, Princess Evdokia Urusova, to join the Old Believers.

After many misfortunes the sisters were incarcerated in an underground cellar of the St. Paphnutius Monastery at Borovsk, Feodosiya was starved to death on December 1, 1675. Many Old Believer communities venerate her as a martyr.

In 1652, Nikon (16051681; Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church from 1652 to 1658) introduced a number of ritual and textual innovations with the aim of achieving uniformity between Russian and Greek Orthodox practices. Nikon, having noticed discrepancies between Russian and Greek rites and texts, ordered an adjustment of the Russian rites to align with the Greek ones of his time. According to the Old Believers, Nikon acted without adequate consultation with the clergy and without gathering a council. After the implementation of these innovations, the Church anathematized and suppressed the old liturgical rite itself, as well as those who were reluctant to pass to the new rite with the support of Muscovite state power. The traditionalists endured severe persecutions from the end of the 17th century until the beginning of the 20th century as schismatics (raskol'niki, Russian: ). They became known as "Old Ritualists" (staroobryadtsy), a name introduced during the reign of Empress Catherine the Great. At the same time they continued to call themselves simply orthodox Christians.
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Vasily Ivanovich Surikov (1848 - 1916)  Boyarina Morozova  Oil on canvas, 1887   304 x 587.5 cm  The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, RussiaVasily Ivanovich Surikov (1848 - 1916)  Bronzen horseman  Oil on canvas, 1870   52 x 71 cm  The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, RussiaVasily Ivanovich Surikov (1848 - 1916)  Yermak's conquest of Siberia  Oil on canvas, 1895   599*285 m  The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia
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